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Hofstede long term orientation

Downloads für jeden MP3-Player. Musik CD kaufen, MP3 Version grati Long-Term Orientation is the fifth dimension of Hofstede which was added after the original four to try to distinguish the difference in thinking between the East and West. From the original IBM studies, this difference was something that could not be deduced. Therefore, Hofstede created a Chinese value survey which was distributed across 23 countries. From these results, and with an. Hofstede: Long Term / Short Term. Hofstede' new dimension is based on the study of Michael Bond in Hong Kong which had noted that Hofstede's previous four cultural dimensions did not adequately reflect Asian perspectives on culture. It also reflects the time orientation of Kluckhohn and Strodbeck. But, not just a time situation. As Hofstede notes: Long Term Orientation stands for the. Long-term orientation versus short-term orientation is one of five cultural dimensions identified by Geert Hofstede. Cultures demonstrating a long-term orientation emphasize preparation for the. Long Term Orientation Hofstede Examples. My previous post on the cultural dimension Long Term Orientation of Hofstede had a lot of comments. Mainly on Social media. Since the concept of this dimension is often quite confusing for Westerns, I'd like to share a couple of examples of Long-Term Orientation in this article

Long-Term Orientation vs. Short-Term Orientation. The long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation dimension considers the extent to which society views its time horizon. Long-term orientation shows focus on the future and involves delaying short-term success or gratification in order to achieve long-term success. Long-term orientation. LTO wvs - Longterm Orientation - Langfristdenken versus Kurzfristdenken . Ursprünglich auch als Konfuzianische Dynamik bezeichnet und abgeleitet aus den Ergebnissen einer sozialpsychologischen Studie (Chinese Value Survey) von Michael Bond in den 1980er Jahren, hat Prof. Geert Hofstede, diese Dimension inzwischen neu bewertet. Als Grundlage dienten ihm die Arbeiten von Prof. Michael Minkov. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) vs. Short-Term Orientation. Hofstede's fifth cultural index, long-term orientation, describes the extent to which members of a society perceive a consistent, interconnected thread running through the past, present, and future. In countries with high LTO scores, people are inclined to act pragmatically in the present in order to prepare for the future. They are.

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  1. Lang- oder kurzfristige Ausrichtung (Long-Term Orientation - LTO) Dieser Index, der von Hofstede erst spät eingeführt wurde, gibt an, wie groß der zeitliche Planungshorizont in einer Gesellschaft ist. Die Einführung dieser Dimension in der zweiten Auflage des Buches gründet auf Kooperationen mit chinesischen Forschern und Managern, welche den Einfluss des.
  2. long term orientation versus short term normative orientation (lto) Every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and the future. Societies prioritize these two existential goals differently
  3. Country comparison. Select one or several countries in the menu below to see the values for the 6 dimensions. Go further, discover our cultural survey tool, the Culture Compass™ or join our open programme Introduction to Cross-Cultural Management
  4. Geert Hofstede, assisted by others, came up with six basic issues that society needs to come to term with in order to organize itself. These are called dimensions of culture. Each of them has been expressed on a scale that runs roughly from 0 to 100. Dimension maps of the world: Individualism. Each dimension has been derived by comparing many, but not all, countries in the world. The findings.

Long-Term Orientation - Clearly Cultura

  1. Long Term Orientation. This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with.
  2. A typical high scoring long term orientation answer could be: I don't know The Origins Of Long-Term Orientation. When prof. Geert Hofstede first constructed his first four dimensions of cultural differences, he recognized that he too was influenced by his own Dutch culture, that he could not take out of the cultural equation
  3. The differences between Short & Long term Orientated Cultures
  4. Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory is a framework for cross-cultural communication, developed by Geert Hofstede. Long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation (LTO): This dimension associates the connection of the past with the current and future actions/challenges. A lower degree of this index (short-term) indicates that traditions are honored and kept, while steadfastness is valued.
  5. short-term orientation (L TO) by Hofstede, is very important for trade. If nothing. else, its strong correlation with economic gro wth across 39 countries in the period. 1970-2000 testi fies.
  6. Asian countries such as China and Japan are known for their long term orientation. Morocco is a short term oriented country. Indulgence . The Indulgence dimension is a relatively new dimension to the model. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and.

Long Term Orientation . This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal change with. This series of Quick Takes will discuss the use of Professor Geert Hofstede's research on Cultural Dimensions as a means of identifying mismatches and opportunities in training delivery. Previously we've covered some of Professor Hofstede's other cultural dimensions. This Quick Take discusses the Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation dimension (LTO) Long-Term Orientation stands for the fostering of virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular perseverance and thrift. It's opposite pole, Short Term Orientation, stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and present, in particular, respect for tradition, preservation of 'face' and fulfilling social obligations.- Gert Hofestede . Origin of Hofestede's Fifth. Geert Hofstede, in his pioneer study looking at differences in culture across modern nations, identified four dimensions of cultural values: individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity-femininity. Working with researcher Michael Bond, Hofstede later added a fifth dimension with called dynamic Confucianism, or long-term orientation Long-term versus short-term orientation has exerted a strong negative influence on helping a stranger, suggesting that devaluing the importance of serving others and endorsement of thrift and perseverance in a society can have a negative impact on building prosocial ethos. Moderation analyses have also revealed several valuable findings: (1) IVR is more strongly conductive to prosocial.

Short-term orientation pertains to those societies that are strongly inclined toward the establishment of the absolute truth. Indulgence vs. Restraint: This revolves around the degree to which societies can exercise control over their impulses and desires. THE SIX HOFSTEDE DIMENSIONS & UNDERSTANDING COUNTRIES, CULTURE AND PEOPL Independent research in Hong Kong led Hofstede to add a fifth dimension, long-term orientation, to cover aspects of values not discussed in the original paradigm. In 2010 Hofstede added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self- restraint. The theory has been widely used in several fields as a paradigm for research, particularly in cross. 10 minutes with Geert Hofstede on Long versus Short Term Orientation 01032015 - Duration: 10 10 minutes with Geert Hofstede... on Power Distance 10112014 - Duration: 11:28. 10 minutes with. Long- versus short-term orientation, a national value dimension originally found by Bond among students in 23 countries, became Hofstede's (1991 Hofstede, G. 1991.Cultures and organizations: software of the mind, London: McGraw-Hill. [Google Scholar]) fifth dimension of national cultures.Recent analyses by Minkov (2007 Minkov, M. 2007.What makes us different and similar: a new interpretation.

The United States scored a 62 on Hofstede's scale. So these two cultures share, in terms of masculinity, similar values. So these two cultures share, in terms of masculinity, similar values. Power Distance Index | Individualism | Masculinity | Uncertainty Avoidance Index | Long-Term Orientation Especially the dimensions Power Distance, Individualism vs. Collectivism, Long-Term Orientation and Indulgence versus Restraint are closely correlated with value dimensions reported by Inglehart, Schwartz and the current data from the World Values Survey. Reception of his work. Hofstede's books have appeared in 23 languages. World Wide Web's. Long-Term Orientation stands for the fostering in a society of pragmatic virtues oriented to future rewards, in particular perseverance, thrift, and adapting to changing circumstances Its opposite pole, Short-Term Orientation, stands for the fostering in a society of virtues related to the past and the present, such as national pride, respect for tradition, preservation of face , and.

Hofstede LongTerm / Short Term Trait

  1. Hofstede Short-Term Orientation versus Long-Term Orientation; Hofstede Uncertainty Avoidance; Hofstede's Six Cultural Dimensions; Hofstede's Power Distance and Organizational Culture; How to Say Hello in 30 Different Languages; How to say Basic Phrases in 30 Different Languages; How to Say How are you? in 30 Different Language
  2. Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation. Indulgence Versus Restraint. Note: in the original version of the book Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation was described as Pragmatic Versus Normative. Hofstede, Bond and Minkov scored each country on a scale of 0 to 100 for each dimension
  3. The relationships between several Hofstede's cultural dimensions and prosocial behavior at national level have been investigated by some studies. Yet the roles of indulgence versus restraint (IVR) and long-term versus short-term orientation (LTO), two newly established cultural dimensions, have received insufficient interest. This study aimed to investigate whether the World Giving Index.

Long-Term Orientation vs

Long Term Orientation. China is a very long term orientated society. This ties in with Chinese people's drive to succeed in life; they are willing to persevere and work for a long time to achieve. Chinese people are not so much about instant gratification, and when they invest in things, it tends to be for the long term. Conveying the. The Professor Geert Hofstede is the founder of the comparative intercultural research. On the Hofstede Center Website, you can compare countries according to six dimensions (Power Distance, Individualism, Masculinity, Uncertainty Avoidance, Long Term Orientation and Indulgence). Let's compare France and Germany. The following article is based. Long-Term Orientation (LTO) Hofstede is the prominent Dutch cross-cultural researcher. Hofstede's studies reveal that Mexicans scored high in Power-Distance, Uncertainty-Avoidance, Collectivism and Masculinity. The Geert Hofstede analysis for India shows a large Power Distance society and all other measures are relatively moderate. This would be indicative of the fact that India is in the. Hofstede's的Long-Term Orientation 和 short-Term Orientation 是什么意思? 因为我看了解释之后觉得和我们平常说的长期导向和短期导向不同 为什么短期的会更注重面子 更尊重传统??而长期的不是更尊重传统??(中国不就是一个活生生的长期导向的国家吗??)我觉得理论里面说的 区别都好小。。求解答T-T.

Long term orientation scores indicate how a country or culture focuses on the future. Short term orientation on the other hand is when a society is focused on the present or past. This would be consistent of the countries that have a strong cultural focus on past traditions. Mexico's LTO is a 24.0 which compared to the rest of the world is significantly lower. The rest of the world averages. The next dimension of Hofstede's Cultural Dimension theory is Long-Term Versus Short-Term Orientation (LTO). It refers to the connection of the past with current as well as future challenges. Societies with high long-term orientation indicate that steadfastness is valued and traditions are kept and honoured. It puts its focus on the future.

Hofstede's long term orientation Long term orientation is the fifth dimension in Hofstede's cultural model. It is defined as the extent to which a society looks forward to the future rather than resorting to the past to solve the problems in the present or the future. Making decisions based on past experiences and actions clearly has different implications in compare to looking forward in. According to Hofstede (2001), long-term orientations appear to be based on principles suggested in the teachings of Confucius (e.g., thrift, perseverance, face-saving). Work settings consistent with a long-term cultural orientation include providing long-term employment and solv-ing problems for the long term rather than making quick fixes. Persis- tence and perseverance are important when. Hofstede's six cultural dimensions are: power distance index, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance index, long term orientation, and indulgence. Power Distance Index (PDI) The power distance index indicates the degree to which less powerful members of a society accept or expect the unequal distribution of power Long-term vs. short-term orientation describes how people think about time. In a short-term culture, people tend to focus on the past and the present, and tend to seek immediate gratification. In a long-term culture, people tend to focus on the distant future, and are willing to delay immediate gratification in favor of working towards long-term goal

Long Term Orientation Hofstede; Here are Some Real Example

Long term orientation versus short term normative orientation . This fifth dimension was added in 1991 from research by Michael Bond, supported by Hofstede. Based on Confucianism, the fifth dimension was added to distinguish the difference in thinking between the East and West. A Chinese value survey was distributed across 23 countries and from the results, long term vs. short term normative. The final Hofstede dimension is long-term/short-term orientation. Do members of a society think more in the now or further in the future? Values of the long-term oriented culture include thrift or perseverance while short-term orientation culture's values include fulfilling social obligations and saving face (Hofstede, 2003). Real-life application . I found an interesting current event. Long Term Orientation versus Short Term Normative Orientation (LTO) The Long Term Orientation means that the society links with its past in its present and future. They do not accept more changes in their current and future while Short Term Norm societies do not follow their past culture entirely and adopt the changes of the new era

Long-term vs. short-term orientation: the culturally based tendency to value either perseverance, preparation and saving or traditions, present obligations, etc. Build a thorough understanding of the theories of Hofstede and how they can benefit your compan Hofstede's results, as might be expected, showed that nations such as _____ scored low on long-term orientation. the United States and Canada. Class-based conflict between workers and management in class-conscious societies can lead to: increased costs of doing business. Which of the following is an example of ethnocentrism? An American manager criticizes the cultural practices of Saudi Arabia. Long Term Orientation and vi. Indulgence were added to his study. The relative positions of the countries were expressed in a scale between 0 and 100 Indulgence were added to his study Long term orientation versus Short term orientation This dimension explains us the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future oriented perspective rather than a conventional historic or short term point of view. Countries scoring high on this dimension are the Asian countries. These countries believe in many truths, have a long term. Geert Hofstede's framework for cross-cultural communication describes a society's values and behaviors, while it ultimately seeks to distinguish overall cultural norms. Hofstede's original model was created with four dimensions through the use of factor analysis to examine employee values at IBM in more than 50 locations worldwide. It has been refined to add long-term orientation

Video: Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions Theory - Overview and

5 Lang-/kurzfristige Orientierung (Long-/Short-Term Orientation) Kulturen mit hoher Langzeit­orientierung zeichnen sich durch Ausdauer, Sparsam­keit und Geduld bei der Erreichung von Fernzielen aus. Kurzzeitorientierte Kulturen dagegen legen Wert auf schnelle Gewinne binnen Jahresfrist oder kürzer, und es gibt mehr gültige Richtlinien bezüglich dessen, was gut und schlecht ist. Konsequenz. The cultures with the highest ranking on Hofstede's Long Term Orientation index, who were determined to hold the longest view of things are primarily the Asian cultures of China, Taiwan, Japan and South Korea, with Brazil and India coming along next on the list, at the other end of the scale are Pakistan, Nigeria, Spain, Canada, Great Britain and the United States as cultures with the least. Hofstede has found the deep drivers of Russian culture using a model to measure a nation's cultural dimensions. The cultural dimensions Hofstede evaluates includes power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation, and indulgence. The first dimension Hofstede looks at is power distance. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less powerful.

East meets West: How Culture Influences Cross Border

Das Hofstede Kulturmodell mapConsul

Hofstede: The Six Dimensions of Cultural Difference

  1. Geert Hofstede Long Term Orientation Essays and Research Papers . 71 - 80 of 500 . Long-term vs. Short-term memory Long-Term Care: The Impact of the Elderly Providing accessible, affordable, and high-quality long-term care services to an aging population presents a growing challenge to long-term care providers. As the oldest members of the baby boom generation approach retirement.
  2. review see Hofstede, 2001, pp. 29-31). The most common dimension used for ordering societies is their degree of economic evolution or modernity. A one-dimensional ordering of societies from traditional to modern fitted well with the nineteenth- and twentieth-century 3 Hofstede: Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Contex
  3. - short term orientation - long term orientation - indulgence - restraint. power distance = (Hofstede) = extent to which less powerful members within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. Which characteristics are associated with high power distance in organizations? - more centralization - tall organizational pyramids - more supervisory personnel - large wage.
  4. ing the impact of the condition/illness from the perspective of the individual and their family and also the impact of person centred care upon nursing practice. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2008.
  5. inity Uncertainty avoidance (UAI) Long-term versus short-term orientation Indulgence versus.
  6. Long-term orientation (LTO) was introduced by Hofstede in 1991 as the fifth dimension of national cultures. Hofstede (2001, p. 359.) defined LTO as follows: Long Term Orientation stands for the fostering of virtues oriented towards future rewards, in particular, perseverance and thrift.Its opposite pole, Short Term Orientation, stands for the fostering of virtues related to the past and the.
  7. Long Term versus Short Term Orientation and Indulgence versus Restraint (for more comprehensive information, see paragraph 2.1.). Most of researchers, such as Shane (1993), Herbig and Dunphy (1998), Hussler (2004) or Rinne, et. al (2012) discovered a negative relationship between Power Distance and innovative performance (see Table 1). According to Kaasa (2013), low power distance cultures.

However, Hofstede (1991) changed the name of this dimension using the more general label of Long-Term (vs. Short-Term) Orientation. Countries scoring high on Long-Term Orientation tend to be more future-oriented and easily accept delayed gratification of individual effort. Cultures in which this orientation dominates are characterized by strong perseverance and thrift. By contrast, countries. In the long term orientation, Thailand got 32 scores, while Japan got 88 scores. Japan has high score, so it can interpret that japanese people are better in preparation for long term succeed. For example, mostly companies in Japan concern about long term investment, and they will focus more on the growth of market share more than quarterly profits (The Hofstede Centre, n.d.). Thailand. Long term orientation . Long term orientation (based on Confucianism dynamism) - values associated with Long Term Orientation (e.g. China) are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation (e.g. Germany) are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations and protecting one's 'face'. Other writers on cultur Geert Hofstede has completely rewritten, revised and updated Culture's Consequences for the twenty-first century, he has broadened the book's cross-disciplinary appeal, expanded the coverage of countries examined from 40 to more than 50, reformulated his arguments and a large amount of new literature has been included. The book is structured around five major dimensions: power distance. 5. Long Term Orientation. In organisations that focus on the long-term relationship with employees, typically those employees work hard to live up to the expectations of management. Employees who notice the long-term investment in the relationships often feel more attached to the company/ organisation, and focus on longer-term goals

Geert Hofstede - Wikipedi

Hofstede joined IBM in 1965 as a trainer in the international Executive Development Department, Values associated with Long Term Orientation are thrift and perseverance; values associated with Short Term Orientation are respect for tradition, fulfilling social obligations, and protecting one's 'face'. Both the positively and the negatively rated values of this dimension are found in the. Due to Hofstede's cultural dimensions graph, Thailand is scored at 56 LTO, means that Thailand is a long-term orientation society. Thai society is a long-term orientation since the past. Since agriculture, especially rice farm is Thai principle occupation. Because in a former time, Thai people lack technology and capital, they found out a difficult to harvest all mature rice from a wide land. Long term orientation is term used by Geert Hofstede in 1991 to describe particular type of difference in different national societies. Main characteristics of long term orientation are : emphasis on persistence and tradition common norms apply in all situation

National Culture - Hofstede Insight

A higher degree of long term orientation: Japan is a long-term oriented society, which looks at the bigger picture and views an individual's life as a short moment in time. In business, this translates to a far higher focus on long term investment (e.g. in R&D) rather than short-term profits Societies with a short-term orientation generally exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save, strong social pressure to keep up with the Joneses, impatience for achieving quick results, and a strong concern with establishing the Truth i.e. normative. Western societies are typically found at the short-term end of this dimension, as are the countries of the. Nepal has a high value in long term orientation (LTO) while considering the criteria of Hofstede's cultural dimensions as LTO refers to the importance of long-standing traditions and values as opposed to short term traditions and values according to it The Hofstede model consists of 6 dimensions: power distance index (PDI), individualism versus collectivism (IDV), masculinity versus femininity (MAS), uncertainty avoidance index (UAI), long-term orientation versus short-term normative orientation (LTO), indulgence versus restraint (IND). These categories can distinguish one culture to another. Power distance index (PDI) This dimension. Independent research in Hong Kong led Hofstede to add a fifth dimension, long-term orientation (i.e., long versus short term orientation) to cover aspects of values not discussed in the original paradigm. In 2010, Hofstede and colleagues added a sixth dimension, indulgence versus self-restraint

Country Comparison - Hofstede Insight

Hofstede Geert Hofstede's five cultural dimensions are individualistic vs. collectivism, power distance, quality of life vs. quantity of life, uncertainty avoidance and time orientation Long-Term Orientation . the . extent to which a society shows a pragmatic future-oriented perspective rather than a conventional historical short-term point of view. (teachings of Confucius) Characteristics of the two opposing sides of this dimension: Long term orientation-persistence-ordering relationships by status and observing this order. Psychologist Dr. Geert Hofstede published his cultural dimensions model at the end of the 1970s, based on a decade of research into IBM employees in 50 countries worldwide. Since then, it's become an internationally recognised standard for understanding cultural differences and the basis for much work-orientated cultural training Geert Hofstede Cultural Dimensions หรือ มิติทางวัฒนธรรม ของ Hofstede แบ่งมิติทางวัฒนธรรมออกเป็น 6 Long Term Orientation คือ ให้ความสำคัญในเรื่องระยะยาวมากแค่ไหน Indulgence คือ การแสดงออก.

Useful Frames For Communicators | Rightpoint

The 6 dimensions model of national culture by Geert Hofstede

What is Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation? Definition of Long-Term vs. Short-Term Orientation: Measures the tendency of perseverance or quick results. Societies with a long-term orientation show a strong tendency to invest and thriftiness to achieve long-term results, while societies with a short-term orientation have great respect for traditions and tend to achieve quick results ORIENTATION Evaluation of HOFFSTEDE'S five cultural dimensions LONG TERM OF LONG TERM 1.Hofstede defines the longterm and short-term orientation of the five dimensions of cultural which is : Long-term orientation dimension is based on the discovery of the research on the students of 23 countries, and it focuses on the future-oriented culture and is linked to qualities of frugal and. Long-term Orientation vs. Short-term Orientation: According to Hofstede, every society has to maintain some links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and the future (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010). Cultures that score low in this dimension are known to value tradition more over societal change

China - Hofstede Insight

Hofstede established the differences between cultures by assigning each dimension and country a score on a 0*100 scale and the country* level factor analysis of his study paved the way for the classification of countries across the following cultural aspects: • Power distance (PDI), describing the extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally Geert Hofstede Kulturdimensionen: Mit diesen, von dem emeritierter Professor für Organisationsanthropologie und Internationales Management an der Universität Maastricht, Niederlande.Geert Hofstede definierten Kulturdimensionen wird gezeigt, dass Kulturgruppen einen erheblichen Einfluss auf das Verhalten von Unternehmen, deren Organisation und Führung haben

Hofstede's cultural dimensionsWhy Was the Time Orientation Added to Hofstede's Framework?Hofstede dimension dlatest_ - copy

Hofstede's framework for understanding national differences has been one of the most influential and widely used frameworks in cross-cultural business studies, in the past ten years' - Australian Journal of Management The long-anticipated Second Edition of a true classic is thoroughly updated with an expanded coverage and scope. This excellent work explores the differences in thinking and. Long-term orientation is when you are focused on the future. You are willing to delay short-term material or social success or even shot-term emotional gratification in order to prepare for the future. If you have this cultural perspective, you value persistence, perseverance, saving and being able to adapt.These cultures have employees with strong work ethic, they show great respect for. Penelitian Hofstede (elemen-elemen struktural dari budaya yang mempengaruhi kuat perilaku dalam situasi organisasi dan institusi). Long Term Orientation merupakan dimensi yang berlawanan pada orientasi jangka pendek. Dalam komunitas yang memiliki dimensi Long Term Orientation yang tinggi maka diasosiasikan dengan keadaan akan tingkat penghematan dan ketekunan yang dimiliki oleh sebuah. Hofstede developed this theory between 1967 and 1973. In a breakdown, the dimensions of national cultures consist of: power distance index, individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoidance index, masculinity vs. femininity, long-term orientation vs. short-term orientation and indulgence vs. restraint. To explain in more depth of the Hofstede' cultural dimensions we take a look into the. Societies with short term orientation also lay emphasis on the past. They thus value brands with heritage value. Hofstede Model - Few points to keep in mind You would have to mix 2-3 dimensions before arriving at a strategy for your brand. For example: High Masculinity + High Individualism = Appeal to Succes

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